V. Promoting Sound and Rapid Development of the National Economy
To attain the objectives for economic development, it is essential to significantly accelerate the transformation of the development pattern and improve the socialist market economy. We need to vigorously push forward strategic economic restructuring and make greater efforts to improve China's capacity for independent innovation as well as energy and environmental conservation, and to enhance the overall quality of the economy and its international competitiveness. We need to deepen our understanding of the laws governing the socialist market economy, introduce institutions to give better play to the basic role of market forces in allocating resources, and form a system of macroeconomic regulation conducive to scientific development.
1. Enhance China's capacity for independent innovation and make China an innovative country. This is the core of our national development strategy and a crucial link in enhancing the overall national strength. We need to keep to the path of independent innovation with Chinese characteristics and improve our capacity for independent innovation in all areas of modernization. We need to conscientiously implement the Outline of the National Program for Long- and Medium-Term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-20), increase spending on independent innovation, and make breakthroughs in key technologies vital to our economic and social development. We will speed up forming a national innovation system and support basic research, research in frontier technology and technological research for public welfare. We will step up our efforts to establish a market-oriented system for technological innovation, in which enterprises play the leading role and which combines the efforts of enterprises, universities and research institutes, and guide and support the concentration of factors of innovation in enterprises, thereby promoting the translation of scientific and technological advances into practical productive forces. We will deepen reform of the system for managing science and technology, optimize the allocation of relevant resources, and improve the legal guarantee, policy system, incentive mechanism and market conditions to encourage technological innovation and the application of scientific and technological achievements in production. We will implement the strategy for intellectual property rights. We will make the best use of international resources of science and technology. We will continue to create conditions conducive to innovation, work to train world-class scientists and leaders in scientific and technological research, attach great importance to training innovative personnel in the frontline of production, inspire the creative wisdom of the whole society and bring forth large numbers of innovative personnel in all areas.
2. Accelerate transformation of the mode of economic development and promote upgrading of the industrial structure. This is a pressing strategic task vital to the national economy as a whole. We must keep to the new path of industrialization with Chinese characteristics, pursue the policy of boosting domestic demand, particularly consumer demand, and propel three transitions in the mode of economic growth: the transition from relying mainly on investment and export to relying on a well coordinated combination of consumption, investment and export, the transition from secondary industry serving as the major driving force to primary, secondary and tertiary industries jointly driving economic growth, and the transition from relying heavily on increased consumption of material resources to relying mainly on advances in science and technology, improvement in the quality of the workforce and innovation in management. We will develop a modern industrial system, integrate IT application with industrialization, push our large industries to grow stronger, invigorate the equipment manufacturing industry, and eliminate outdated production capacities. We will upgrade new- and high-technology industries and develop information, biotechnology, new materials, aerospace, marine and other industries. We will develop the modern service industry and raise the level of the service sector and its share in the economy. We will step up efforts to improve basic industries and infrastructure and accelerate development of a modern energy industry and a comprehensive transport system. We will ensure the quality and safety of products. We will encourage formation of internationally competitive conglomerates.
3. Balance urban and rural development and build a new socialist countryside. As resolution of issues concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers has an overall impact on building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we must always make it a top priority in the work of the whole Party. We will strengthen the position of agriculture as the foundation of the national economy, take a path of agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics, set up a permanent mechanism of industry promoting agriculture and urban areas helping rural areas, and form a new pattern that integrates economic and social development in urban and rural areas. We will continue to take developing modern agriculture and invigorating the rural economy as a primary task, strengthen infrastructure in rural areas, and improve the system of rural markets and that of services for agriculture. We will increase policy measures to support and benefit agriculture, rural areas and farmers, strictly protect arable land, increase spending on agriculture, promote advances in agriculture-related science and technology, and improve overall agricultural production capacity to ensure food security for the nation. We will intensify efforts to prevent and control animal and plant epidemic diseases and improve the quality and safety of agricultural products. To increase farmers' income, we will develop rural enterprises, expand county economies, and transfer rural labor out of farming through various channels. We will enhance poverty reduction through development. We will deepen the comprehensive rural reform, promote reform and innovation in the rural banking system, and reform the system of collective forest rights. We will uphold the basic system for rural operations, stabilize and improve land contract relations, improve the market for transferring land contract and management rights in accordance with the law and on a voluntary and compensatory basis, and develop various forms of appropriate large-scale operations where conditions permit. We will explore effective forms of collective economic operations, develop specialized farmers' cooperatives, and support the industrialized operation of agriculture and the development of leading agribusinesses. We will train a new type of farmers who are educated and understand both agricultural techniques and business management, and encourage hundreds of millions of farmers to play the major role in building a new countryside.
4. Improve energy, resources, ecological and environmental conservation and enhance China's capacity for sustainable development. Adhering to the basic state policy of conserving resources and the environment is vital to the immediate interests of the people and the survival and development of the Chinese nation. We must give prominence to building a resource-conserving, environment-friendly society in our strategy for industrialization and modernization and get every organization and family to act accordingly. We will improve laws and policies to promote energy, resources, ecological and environmental conservation, and speed up the formation of systems and mechanisms for sustainable development. We will implement the responsibility system for conserving energy and reducing emissions. We will develop and extend advanced and appropriate technologies for conserving, substituting and recycling energy and resources and for controlling pollution, develop clean and renewable energy sources, protect land and water resources and set up a scientific, rational system for using energy and resources more efficiently. We will develop environmental conservation industries. We will increase spending on energy and environmental conservation with the focus on intensifying prevention and control of water, air and soil pollution and improving the living environment for both urban and rural residents. We will improve water conservancy, forestry and grasslands, intensify efforts to bring desertification under control and prevent the spread of stony deserts, and promote restoration of the ecosystems. We will enhance our capacity to respond to climate change and make new contributions to protecting the global climate.
5. Promote balanced development among regions and improve the pattern of land development. To narrow the gap in development among regions, we must work to ensure their equal access to basic public services and guide a rational flow of factors of production between regions. Following the general strategy for regional development, we will continue to carry out large-scale development of the western region, rejuvenate northeast China and other old industrial bases in an all-round way, boost the development of the central region and support the eastern region in taking the lead in development. We will strengthen land planning, improve policies for regional development and adjust the geographical distribution of economic operations in accordance with the requirement to form development priority zones. In compliance with the laws governing the market economy, we will work beyond administrative divisions to form a number of close-knit economic rims and belts that will provide a strong impetus to the development of other areas. In locating major projects, we must give full consideration to supporting development of the central and western regions and encourage the eastern region to help them develop. We will give more support to the development of old revolutionary base areas, ethnic autonomous areas, border areas and poverty-stricken areas. We will help transform the economies of areas where natural resources are exhausted. We will have the special economic zones, the Pudong New Area in Shanghai and the Binhai New Area in Tianjin play a major role in reform, opening up and independent innovation. Taking a path of urbanization with Chinese characteristics, we will promote balanced development of large, medium-sized and small cities and towns on the principle of balancing urban and rural development, ensuring rational distribution, saving land, providing a full range of functions and getting larger cities to help smaller ones. Focusing on increasing the overall carrying capacity of cities, we will form city clusters with mega cities as the core so that they can boost development in other areas and become new poles of economic growth.
6. Improve the basic economic system and the modern market system. We need to uphold and improve the basic economic system in which public ownership is dominant and different economic sectors develop side by side, unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public sector of the economy, unswervingly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector, ensure equal protection of property rights, and create a new situation in which all economic sectors compete on an equal footing and reinforce each other. We will deepen the reform to introduce the corporate and shareholding systems in state-owned enterprises, improve the modern corporate structure and optimize the distribution and structure of the state sector of the economy to enhance its dynamism, dominance and influence. We will deepen the reform of monopoly industries by introducing competition, and strengthen government regulation and public oversight of them. We will accelerate development of a budget system for managing state capital and improve systems and regulations for managing all types of state assets. We will press ahead with the reform of collectively-owned enterprises and develop various forms of collective and cooperative economic operations. We will promote equitable market access, improve the financing environment and remove institutional barriers in order to promote development of individually-owned businesses and private companies as well as small and medium-sized enterprises. We will develop the economic sector of mixed ownership based on the modern system of property rights. We will accelerate the formation of a modern market system that is unified and open and that allows orderly competition, develop markets for factors of production, improve the pricing mechanism for factors of production and resources to reflect changes in market supply and demand, resource scarcities and environmental costs, regulate and develop industry associations and market-based intermediaries, and improve the social credibility system.
7. Deepen fiscal, taxation and financial restructuring and improve macroeconomic regulation. We will improve the public finance system as we work to ensure equal access to basic public services and establish development priority zones. We need to deepen reform of the budget system, tighten budgetary management and oversight, improve the system whereby both the central and local governments have financial resources proportionate to their duties and responsibilities, accelerate the establishment of a unified, standardized and transparent system for transfer payments, enlarge the size and proportion of general transfer payments, and increase input in public services. We will improve fiscal systems at and below the provincial level to enhance the capacity of county and township governments to provide public services. We will adopt fiscal and taxation systems conducive to scientific development and set up sound compensation systems for use of resources and for damage to the ecological environment. We will proceed with financial reforms to develop various types of financial markets and build a modern financial system that is inclusive of different forms of ownership and different ways of operation and that features a reasonable structure, complete functions, efficiency and security. We will make our banking, securities and insurance industries more competitive. We will improve the structure of the capital market and raise the proportion of direct financing through multiple channels. We will strengthen financial supervision and control, and forestall and defuse financial risks. We will improve the RMB exchange rate regime and gradually make the RMB convertible under capital accounts. We will deepen reform of the investment system and improve and strictly enforce market access rules. We will improve the state planning system. We will give play to the guiding role of national development plans, programs and industrial policies in macroeconomic regulation and combine the use of fiscal and monetary policies to improve macroeconomic regulation.
8. Expand opening up in scope and depth and improve our open economy. Adhering to the basic state policy of opening up, we will better integrate our "bring in" and "go global" strategies, expand the areas of opening up, optimize its structure, raise its quality, and turn our open economy into one in which domestic development and opening to the outside world interact and Chinese businesses and their foreign counterparts engage in win-win cooperation, and one that features security and efficiency, in order to gain new advantages for China in international economic cooperation and competition amid economic globalization. We will deepen the opening up of coastal areas, accelerate that of inland areas and upgrade that of border areas, so that opening up at home and opening to the outside world will promote each other. We will expedite transformation of the growth mode of foreign trade, stress quality, adjust the mix of imports and exports, promote transformation and upgrading of processing trade, and energetically develop service trade. We will make innovations in the way of using foreign capital, improve the structure of foreign investment utilized, and let the use of foreign capital play a positive role in facilitating independent innovation, industrial upgrading and balanced development among regions. We will make innovations in our way of overseas investment and cooperation, support domestic enterprises in carrying out international operations of R&D, production and marketing, and accelerate the growth of Chinese multinational corporations and Chinese brand names in the world market. We will vigorously carry out mutually beneficial international cooperation in energy and resources. We will implement a strategy of free trade zones and expand bilateral and multilateral trade and economic cooperation. We will adopt comprehensive measures to maintain a basic equilibrium in the balance of payments. We must guard against international economic risks.
By ensuring sound and rapid growth of the economy, we will further enhance China's economic strength, and enable our socialist market economy to exhibit its great vitality.