The 12th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party came to a successful end in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on September 11.
The 11-day congress accomplished the following tasks:
- Approved a report made by Comrade Hu Yaobang on behalf of the 11th Party Central Committee (see our last issue for full text of his report). This report specifies the basic conclusion the Party has drawn from long years of struggle, that is, to integrate the universal truth of Marxism with the concrete realities of China, blaze a path of her own and build socialism with Chinese characteristics; it also lays down the principles and tasks for the creation of a new situation in all fields of socialist modernization;
- Adopted a new Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party (see p. 8), which is the best since the Party was founded in 1921. Drawn up in the light of the characteristics and needs of the new period of historical development, the new Party Constitution sets stricter demands on Party members, cadres and grass-roots organizations than previous Constitutions, emphasizing that members of the Chinese Communist Party are at all times ordinary members of the working people and that they must not seek personal gain or privileges. It also lays down more comprehensive and more specific provisions regarding the Party's democratic centralism and Party discipline, stresses collective leadership and forbids any form of personality cult;
- Endorsed a work report made by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection; and
- Elected the 12th Party Central Committee which is composed of 348 members and alternate members, the Central Advisory Commission with 172 members and the 132-member Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
The newly elected Party Central Committee has the following two salient features:
- It embodies the co-operation between old and new cadres and the succession of the new to the old, which will ensure the continuity of the Party's correct line adopted since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Party Central Committee. With the exception of a dozen or so proletarian revolutionaries of the older generation over the age of 70 who, well-experienced in struggle, enjoy high prestige at home and abroad and are presiding over the work of the whole Party and nation, the overwhelming majority of the Party Central Committee members joined the revolution during the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45), the War of Liberation (1946-49) or after the birth of New China in 1949. Of the 348 members and alternate members, 211, or more than 60 per cent, were elected into the Central Committee for the first time, and two-thirds of the 211 are below 60 years old, the youngest being 38.
- Due attention has been paid to choosing better educated and professionally competent cadres. A considerable number of the 211 Party Central Committee members mentioned above are well-accomplished professionals from the various economic departments, and some are outstanding representatives from the cultural and educational fields and leading Party, government and army cadres. Fifty-nine, or 17 per cent, are professional and technological cadres as against 9, or 2.7 per cent, on the 1lth Party Central Committee.
The 12th Party Congress was one in which democracy was brought into full play. During the group discussions, the delegates freely aired their views and there was a full exchange of opinions. The secretariat of the congress added new points and made amendments to relevant documents according to the opinions and suggestions made during the group discussions. The election of the Party Central Committee also gave full play to democracy. The delegates just cast their ballots without making any marks on the list of candidates if they agreed with all of them; if they had different opinions on certain candidates, they put a mark by the side of their names; and if they wanted to choose others, they wrote their names down on the ballots.
Li Xiannian's Closing Speech
In his speech at the closing session on September 11, Comrade Li Xiannian said that the congress had successfully fulfilled its historic mission. After a brief review of the whole congress, he called on everyone to work hard in the next five years for achieving a fundamental turn for the better in three spheres, namely, the financial and economic situation of our country, the standards of social conduct, and the style of our Party. He also called on the whole Party and the people of all nationalities throughout the country to strive for the fulfilment of the various fighting tasks set forth by the 12th Party Congress.
First Plenum of Central Committee
The First Plenary Session of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China which lasted for two days, closed on September 13 in Beijing.
On the first day, the meeting was presided over by Comrades Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang and was attended by members and alternate members of the Party Central Committee, members of the Central Advisory Commission and Comrade Huang Kecheng. The plenary session elected the members and alternate members of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee, the members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, the General Secretary of the Party Central Committee and the members and alternate members of the Secretariat of the Party Central Committee, and decided on the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Military Commission of the Party Central Committee.
The meeting approved on the second day the leading members of the Central Advisory Commission and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection elected respectively by the two commissions. The meeting was attended by members and alternate members of the Party Central Committee, and members of the Central Advisory Commission and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection attended as observers.
Before the session ended, Comrade Hu Yaobang, on behalf of the newly elected Secretariat of the Party Central Committee, made an important speech concerning the present and next year's tasks.
Prior to this, the Central Advisory Commission and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection held on the same day plenary meetings and elected their own leading members.
Following are the name lists:
Members and Alternate Members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee
1. Members of the Political Bureau (listed in the order of the number of strokes in their surnames):
Wan Li, Xi Zhongxun, Wang Zhen, Wei Guoqing (Zhuang), Ulanhu (Mongolian), Fang Yi, Deng Xiaoping, Deng Ying-chao (f.), Ye Jianying, Li Xian, nian, Li Desheng, Yang Shang-kun, Yang Dezhi, Yu Qiuli, Song Renqiong, Zhang Tingfa, Chen Yun, Zhao Ziyang, Hu Qiaomu, Hu Yaobang, Nie Rongzhen, Ni Zhifu, Xu Xiang-qian, Peng Zhen and Liao Chengzhi
2. Alternate Members of the Political Bureau (listed in the order of the number of votes):
Yao Yilin, Qin Jiwei and Chen Muhua (f.)
Members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee:
Hu Yaobang, Ye Jianying, Deng Xiaoping, Zhao Ziyang, Li Xiannian and Chen Yun
General Secretary of the Central Committee:
Members and Alternate Members of the Secretariat of the Central Committee:
1. Members of the Secretariat (listed in the order of the number of strokes in their surnames):
Wan Li, Xi Zhongxun, Deng Liqun, Yang Yong, Yu Qiuli, Gu Mu, Chen Pixian, Hu Qili and Yao Yilin
2. Alternate Members of the Secretariat (listed in the order of the number of votes):
Qiao Shi and Hao Jianxiu (f.)
Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Military Commission of the Central Committee:
Chairman: Deng Xiaoping
Vice-Chairmen: Ye Jianying, Xu Xiangqian, Nie Rongzhen, and Yang Shangkun (Permanent Vice-Chairman)
Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Central Advisory Commission:
Chairman: Deng Xiaoping
Vice-Chairmen: Bo Yibo, Xu Shiyou, Tan Zhenlin and Li Weihan
Members of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection:
First Secretary: Chen Yun
Second Secretary: Huang Ke-cheng
Permanent Secretary: Wang Heshou
Secretaries: Wang Congwu, Han Guang, Li Chang, Ma Guo-rui and Han Tianshi