The Early Period of the CPC and PRC
1. The Chinese Soviet Republic
Tourists visit the site of the Second National Congress of the Chinese Soviet Republic in Ruijin, Jiangxi Province, on May 21, 2021 (XINHUA)
In November 1931, the Communist Party of China (CPC) convened the first national congress of the Chinese Soviet Republic in Ruijin, Jiangxi Province, and elected and established its central executive committee and council of people’s commissars. The Chinese Soviet Republic was the first democratic dictatorship of workers and peasants in Chinese history.
2. Bean Ballot in Shaanxi-GansuNingxia Border Region
Statues of people at a bean ballot in a museum in Baoding, Hebei Province (XINHUA)
In 1937, the bean ballot became the most important method of election in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region as more than 90 percent of the grassroots voters were illiterate or semiilliterate.
3. Three-Thirds System for the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government
The site of the Changyan United County Government, which was established on January 5, 1940. It was China’s first anti-Japanese democratic government and an important revolutionary base during the Chinese People’s War Against Japanese Aggression (VISUAL PEOPLE)
In order to unite and cooperate with other parties, the CPC initiated the three-thirds systems for the government it set up during the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, stipulating that of the positions in both the administrative organs and the people’s representative bodies, one-third should be for CPC members, another one-third for non-CPC left progressives and the remaining onethird for the middle sections of society. It helped the CPC democratic government to build a united front with a broader social basis.
4. Proposal to Form a Democratic Coalition Government in 1948
Representatives of non-CPC parties pose for a group photo after arriving in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, in January 1949. In the autumn of 1948, leaders of non-CPC parties and other representatives began arriving in liberated areas
of northern and northeastern China to prepare for the convening of the first People’s Political Consultative Conference (VCG)
The CPC Central Committee issued a call on April 30, 1948, proposing the convening of a new political consultative conference to set up a democratic coalition government. This call won the appreciative response from various political parties, people’s organizations, democrats without party affiliations and overseas Chinese who all participated in preparations for the new political consultative conference later. It marks the turning of a new page in China’s democratic political process and party system development.
5.Common Program of the CPPCC adopted in 1949
The First Plenary Session of the CPPCC is held in Beijing in 1949 (XINHUA)
662 representatives from all Chinese political parties, people’s organizations, the People’s Liberation Army, different regions and ethnic groups, as well as overseas Chinese were invited to attend the first plenary session of the Chinese People’s Political
Consultative Conference (CPPCC) on behalf of the people of all ethnic groups across the country. The session witnessed the adoption of the Common Program of the CPPCC.
6 . Founding of People's Republic of China in 1949
Chairman Mao Zedong declares the founding of People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 in
The founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949, marked the great victory of the New Democratic Revolution of the Chinese people under the leadership of the CPC, as well as a fundamental change in the political status of the Chinese people. From then onwards, the Chinese people began to be the true masters of the country
7. Relationship Between the CPC And other political parties
The 12th CPC National Congress is convened in September 1982 (COURTESY PHOTO)
The relationship between the CPC and other political parties was reemphasized in the report to the 12th CPC National Congress which was convened in September 1982. It said that CPC would continue to adhere to the policies of long-term coexistence, mutual oversight, sincerity, sharing both rough times and the smooth, and enhance cooperation with various other political parties, non-party democrats, ethnic minorities, and religious patriots.
8. Improving the System of Multiparty Cooperation
The front-page headline of the People’s Daily on December 30, 1989, concerning Opinions on Upholding and Improving the System of Multiparty Cooperation and Political Consultation Under
the Leadership of the Communist Party of China
In 1989, the CPC Central Committee formulated the Opinions on Upholding and Improving the System of Multiparty Cooperation and Political Consultation Under the Leadership of the Communist Party of China, continuing the process of institutionalizing China’s political party system. It clarified the common tasks, political basis and basic policies of cooperation between the CPC and other other political parties.
9. Included in the Constitution
Photo shows the 1993 Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China,
which was adopted at the First Session of the Eighth National People’s Congress on March 29, 1993 (COURTESY PHOTO)
In 1993, it was written into the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China that the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC will continue and develop well into the future, providing a constitutional basis for the system.
The New Era
President Xi, also General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, concluded that the Chinese people’s democracy is whole-process democracy based on the CPC’s experience during its unremitting struggle for the people to become the masters of the country over the past century. This concept embodies the connotations, features and advantages of socialist democracy, as well as points out the direction for the latter’s future development.
1. Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee
In November 2013, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the CPC proposed to further emphasize improving the country’s democratic system, enriching democratic forms, and giving full play to the strength of China’s socialist political system.
2. CPPCC Biweekly Consultative Seminars
A biweekly consultative seminar of the CPPCC is held in Beijing on June 18, 2015 (XINHUA)
On December 24, 2013, the first biweekly consultative seminars of the CPPCC took place, where members talked about strengthening automobile exhaust regulations and reducing urban air pollution. The seminars have been held once every two weeks, each inviting some 20 related representatives from all walks of life to talk about different topics and give their feedbacks. The biweekly consultative seminars are an effective way to promote consultative democracy and develop a deeper mutual understanding.
3.Democratic Oversight on Poverty Alleviation
Chinese President Xi Jinping, who is also General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, extends Spring Festival greetings to leaders from non-Communist parties and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, as well as personages without party affiliation ahead of the Spring Festival at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, on January 30, 2016 (XINHUA)
In January 2016, President Xi said at the Spring Festival symposium of personages without party affiliation, “Democratic parties must actively participate in the fight against poverty and carry out democratic supervision.” Since the 18th CPC National Congress, entrusted by the CPC Central Committee, starting from 2016, the eight democratic parties’ central committees have spent five years working with eight central and western provinces and autonomous regions to carry out special democratic supervision on poverty alleviation and put forward a large number of suggestions. Victory in the fight against extreme poverty has proven a positive contribution.
4. The 19th CPC National Congress
In October 2017, the report to the 19th CPC National Congress stated that the CPC would continue to improve the system of institutions through which the people run the country and develop a socialist democracy. The report further announced the CPC would expand the people’s orderly political participation to see that, in accordance with the law, they engage in democratic elections, consultations, decision-making, oversight and management.
In October 2019, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the CPC proposed to adhere to and improve the system of the people as masters of the country as well as actively develop a socialist democracy.
People’s democracy is a type of wholeprocess democracy, President Xi said during his visit to the Gubei Civic Center in Shanghai’s Changning District on November 2, 2019. China is on the path of socialist political advancement with Chinese characteristics, where all major legislative decisions are made after going through procedures and democratic deliberations to ensure the decisionmaking process is comprehensive and democratic, Xi said.
We will [continue to] practice a people-centered philosophy of development and promote whole-process people’s democracy, General Secretary of CPC Central Committee Xi said at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC on July 1, 2021